The laboratory of breeding and technologies of growing cereal crops
The laboratory was founded in 1944.The main directions of activity are creation of new varieties of winter wheat and winter barley, primary seed production for registered and perspective varieties of winter wheat, winter barley, spring barley, oats and proso millet. Simultaneously the terms and rates of sowing for new created varieties of winter cereal crops are studied. From the foundation in the laboratory were created 40 varieties of winter wheat, 18 varieties of winter barley, 5 varieties of spring barley. Among the best varieties created in the laboratory, which proved their performance in different trials both in Moldova and abroad we can mention the following varieties of winter wheat: Beltskaia 32, Dnestrovschaia 25, Piticul, Dnestreanca, Belceanca 5, Belceanca 7, Dumbravita, Columna, Izvoras, Alunis, Capriana, Select, and others.
Laboratory of breeding, primary seed production and technologies of growing leguminous and forage crops
The Departments of Leguminous crops and Forage crops which have been unificated in the nowadays laboratory were founded in 1944 simultaneously with the foundation of the State Experimental Station for Breeding. A considerable contribution in plant breeding for leguminous and forage crops have made such plant breeders as: V. Gordienco, Irina Procofiev, N. Golban, Victoria Corobco, Ecaterina Vetrova, V. Kazanji, I. Tcacenco etc. During 75 years of activity in the laboratory were created and registered 68 varieties of leguminous and forage crops, including: 13 varieties of peas, 25 varieties of soybeans, 12 varieties of dry beans, 13 varieties of winter vetch and spring vetch, 4 varieties of alfalfa, one variety of Galega oficinalis. The share of such varieties in the structure of sowing area of legumes and forage crops in Moldova consists 80–90%.
The laboratory of breeding, primary seed production and technology of growing for technical crops
The laboratory includes two groups: one for breeding and technology of growing sunflower and the other one for sugar beet. The group for breeding and technology of growing sunflower was founded in 1977. In this period 14 hybrids of sunflower were created and registered. The oil seed production potential of the created hybrids is more than 5,0 t/ha and oil content reaches 49,0-54,0 per cent. The yield record 6, 92 t/ha was achieved by hybrid MPC 8506 in the Republic of Belarusi. The laboratory has elaborated and improved the methods of parental lines seeds and seed F1 production and the technology of sunflower for oil seeds growing. The group of breeding, primary seed production and technology of growing sugar beet was organized in 1960.28 varieties and hybrids have been created. The technologies of growing sugar beet and direct and indirect methods of seed production have been worked out.
The group of the quality of production
The laboratory was founded in 1956. In diferent times the laboratory was directed by Irina Hlevniuc (1956-1957), Vera Shemeleov (1957-1961) and Iosif Nishchii (1961-1990), Mihai Taran (1990). The laboratory makes the biochemical analyses for breeding and seed material of winter wheat, winter and spring barley, soybean, peas, drybeans, forage crops and sunflower. Besides, by using the method of electrophoresis the laboratory determines the type of the seeds for parental lines and the degree of hybridity of sunflower seeds of the first generation. The laboratory is involved actively in the creation of some varieties of winter wheat, barley, soybean, drybean and alfalfa with the improved qualities of production.
Laboratory of crop protection
Since the foundation the laboratory worked out and implemented the system of crop protection for field crops, according the technological stages of agricultural production in Moldova. During the last 30 years systems of crop protection for cereal and leguminous crops, forage crops, sunflower and sugar beets have been worked out and implemented as component parts of technologies of growing field crops. Annually 2,8–3,2 thousand samples of local breeding material and 500–800 samples from different countries are evaluated both on natural and artificial backgrounds of infestation. Researches from the laboratory are coauthors of 23 varieties and hybrids with high tolerance to the most dangerous diseases. Annually the group is doing trials for at least 65–75 samples of different chemicals from the leading world chemical companies. Such trials allow to recommend the most efficient chemical preparations with low negative impact on the environment.
The departments of sustainable farming systems
The Department was founded in 1944. The Department is conducting researches in long-term field experiments with different crop rotations and permanent crops, systems of fertilization and irrigation in crop rotations. The duration of such experiments is more than 50 years. Since 1989 the new polyfactorial experiments have been initiated on action and interaction of crop rotations, systems of soil tillage and fertilization, without using chemicals for pest, weed and desease control. The results obtained in longterm field experiments have been used for the elaboration of farming systems in Moldova, for publication of many books on crop rotations, irrigation, systems of soil tillage and fertilization in crop rotation, weed management and others. They are used also for practical training of farmers during seminars, for educational work with students and post graduated students. The accumulated scientific knowledges allow making the transition to a more sustainable, including ecological farming systems.